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Bio-diesel WWW Encyclopedia

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The Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia provides comprehensive resources for bio-diesel. It provides inputs and info on various aspects of biodiesel, and over a thousand relevant web links on biodiesel related topics. It is intended to be a one-stop biodiesel resource, and is expected to be of use to beginners and experts alike.

Objective

The objective of the Biodiesel Encyclopedia is to provide resources in an impartial manner such that one is able to get information on all aspects of bio-diesel. While it is indeed true that bio-diesel has many virtues, it is still in its initial phase of application, and there are many aspects to be considered before complete endorsement can be provided for these fuels. This section attempts to provide resources so that a researcher is able to find content that can give her/him good understanding of all the relevant aspects, and about ongoing research and explorations in many areas of this exciting field.

The Biodiesel Encylcopedia will be of use to the following audience

1. A beginner wishing to know the basics of biodiesel

2. An industry professional looking for web resources for specific aspects of biodiesel

3. Those wanting to know how to produce biodiesel

4. Those looking for resources for research and future trends in biodiesel

5. Those wanting to know the usage of biodiesel in their respective geographies.

Comprising over twenty sections, The Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia provides information and resources for over two hundred different aspects of biodiesel.

We hope you find the Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia to be of use.

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Ask Us: Please send us any questions you have on biodiesel, and we will try our best to answer them and provide relevant web resources for the same. You may kindly send your questions to [email protected] . You may also send us your suggestions and feedback to the same email address. We look forward to hearing from you.

See also:

What’s New & News in Energy – Get the latest from the NewNergy Blog

Get the latest news on oil and biodiesel from algae at the Oilgae Blog

Get the big picture on energy & alternative energy source from the Oilgae Energy Sources Portal (Energy portal Home)

See the latest inventions @ breakthroughs in energy @ NewNergy

Oilgae.com – Biodiesel from Algae

Some interesting energy-related questions from Billion Dollar Questions

· Are biofuels sustainable in the long term?

· How long will oil last?


· What are the alternative energy options available?

Sections @ Biodiesel WWW Encyclopedia

1. What is a Biofuel?

Biofuel definition, basics

2. What is Biodiesel?

Biodiesel definition, composition, & bio-diesel chemistry

3. History of Biodiesel?

Where did it start, how did it happen…

3. Advantages of Biofuel & Biodiesel

Biodegradability, non-toxicity, fewer emissions, renewability

4. Characteristics of Efficient Biodiesel

Definition of calorific value, cloud point, flash point, melt point, flash point, iodine value, viscosity, cetane number…

5. What is Diesel?

Links, differences between diesel & gasoline

6. All about Diesel Engines

Links, differences between gasoline & diesel engines

7. Biodiesel & Gasoline Engines – Bio-gasoline?

Inputs on biodiesel in the context of gasoline engines, biogasoline …

8. How is Biodiesel Produced from Plant Oils?

About transesterification, dilution, microemulsion, thermal decomposition, catalytic cracking…

9. Plant Oils as Biodiesel

Plant oils discussed: Rapeseed, palm oil, castor oil, sunflower, safflower, hemp, mustard, soybean, jatropha, algae, radish, artichoke, canola oil, corn oil, rice bran oil, peanut oil, cottonseed oil, coconut oil, tung oil, milk bush, karanj

10. Ethanol as Diesel Fuel

Ethanol links, Ethanol & Biodiesel – compare & contrast

11. The Economics & Sustainability of Biodiesel

Links for biodiesel economics, cost-benefits and sustainability

11. Biodiesel Case Studies

Biodiesel in various countries: North America (USA, Canada, Mexico), Europe (UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain…), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Chile…), Asia (India, China, Japan…), Australia

13. Biodiesel Forums & Blogs

Links to biodiesel forums, discussion groups and bio-diesel blogs

14. Biodiesel – Research & Future Trends

Research links for biodiesel technology, bio-diesel production & applications

15. Biodiesel Links & Directory Pages

Links to web sites that in turn provide links and directories for various aspects of biodiesel

16. Biodiesel Articles & Opinions

News articles, editorials and op-eds on biodiesel and biofuels

17. Biodiesel – Questions & More Questions

Answers & links to questions such as: How long would petrol last? What are the key disadvantages of bio-diesel?...and more

18. More Biodiesel Web Links

Biodiesel Links A-Z

19. Biodiesel Data & Stats

Oilseed yields, diesel fuel standards, viscosity data…

20. Biofuel Reference

Classes of biofiels, energy content for biofuels…

21. Fossil Fuel Energy – Limitations & Crises

Peak oil & more…

Section 1. What is a biofuel?

Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass — recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts. Thus it could be oils from plants, manure from cows, wood from trees and so on. It is a renewable energy source (NREL, Renewable Energy.com), unlike other natural resources such as petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels. (see: Biomass Energy Home Page, Dept of Energy, Govt of USA, Biomass Research Home Page - NREL, Bio-mass Introduction from TERI, India, Biomass Energy – The Energy Story, Govt of Canada, Biomass - from Wikipedia)

Agricultural products specifically grown for use as biofuels include corn and soybeans, primarily in the United States, and flaxseed and rapeseed, primarily in Europe. Waste from industry, agriculture, forestry, and households can also be used to produce bioenergy; examples include straw, lumber, manure, sewage, garbage and food leftovers. Most biofuel is burned to release its stored chemical energy (Is it Easy to Store Energy?), though research is active into more efficient methods of converting biofuels and other fuels into electricity (see Biomass 101 – Apollo Alliance) utilizing fuel cells (see: Fuel Cells .org, How Fuel Cells Work – from How Stuff Works).

The production of biofuels to replace petroleum-based oil and natural gas is in active development. The carbon in biofuels was recently extracted from atmospheric carbon dioxide by growing plants, so burning it does not result in a net increase of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere (see: Atmospheric Carbon-dioxide). As a result, biofuels are seen by many as a way to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by using them to replace non-renewable sources of energy.

Unique Bio-fuels

· Using Milk Waste as Biofuel – Talk Energy

Section 2. What is bio-diesel?

Biodiesel refers to any diesel-equivalent biofuel made from renewable biological materials such as vegetable oils (Vegetable Oil from Wikipedia) or animal fats (Animal Fats fro Wikipedia). While there are numerous interpretations being applied to the term biodiesel, the term biodiesel usually refers to an ester, or an oxygenate, made from the oil and methanol (in other words, the name ‘‘biodiesel’’ can be applied to any transesterified vegetable oil that makes it suitable for use as a diesel fuel).

Technically, as mentioned earlier, biodiesel is vegetable oil methyl ester (Esters & Fatty Acid Methyl Esters – from Wikipedia), or in general one could say that biodiesel consists what are called mono alkyl-esters (Alkyl Esters – Specs & Specification Charts – from Rohm Hass). It is usually produced by a transesterification and esterification (Esters & Esterification – from Aus-Tute) reaction of vegetable or waste oil respectively with a low molecular weight alcohol, such as ethanol (Ethanol from Journey to Forever) and methanol (Methanol – from UCC, Ireland). During this process, the triglyceride (Triglyceride – from Wikipedia) molecule from vegetable oil is removed in the form of glycerin (soap). Once the glycerin is removed from the oil, the remaining molecules are, to a diesel engine, somewhat similar to those of petroleum diesel fuel. There are some notable differences though. While the petroleum and other fossil fuels contain sulfur, ring molecules & aromatics (Aromatics Online), the biodiesel molecules are very simple hydrocarbon chains, containing no sulfur, ring molecules or aromatics. Biodiesel is thus essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel is made up of almost 10% oxygen, making it a naturally "oxygenated" fuel.

The concept of using vegetable oil as a fuel dates back to 1895 when Dr. Rudolf Diesel (Rudolf Diesel – from Hemp Car) developed the first diesel engine to run on vegetable oil. Diesel demonstrated his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 using peanut oil as fuel.

Bio-diesel can be used in diesel engines either as a standalone or blended with petro diesel. Much of the world uses a system known as the "B" factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix. For example, fuel containing 20 % biodiesel is labeled B20. Pure biodiesel is referred to as B100.

Section 3. Advantages of Biofuels & Biodiesel

Primary Advantages & Benefits

· Biodiesels are biodegradable (What is Biodegradability? – from Ecomall)

· They are non-toxic (Toxicity, Bioddegradabilty & Environmental Benefirs of Biodiesel - PDF)

· They have significantly fewer noxious emissions than petroleum-based diesel, when burned (Biodiesel Emissions Data - PDF)

· They are renewable

· With a much higher flash point (Flash Point – from Univ of Arizona) than it is for petro-diesel (biodiesels have a flash point of about 160 °C), biodiesel is classified as a non-flammable liquid by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. This property makes a vehicle fueled by pure biodiesel far safer in an accident than one powered by petroleum diesel or the explosively combustible gasoline.

More Biodiesel Facts & Advantages

· Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel that runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine. (How Diesel Engines Work – from How Stuff Works)

· Biodiesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuel. The most common blend however is a mix of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel, or "B20."

· Biodiesel is about 10% oxygen by weight and contains no sulfur. The lifecycle production and use of biodiesel produces approximately 80% less carbon dioxide emissions, and almost 100% less sulfur dioxide.

· Combustion of biodiesel alone provides over 90% reduction in total unburned hydrocarbons, and a 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. When burned in a diesel engine, biodiesel replaces the exhaust odor of petroleum diesel with the pleasant smell of popcorn or french fries. Biodiesel further provides significant reductions in particulates and carbon monoxide than petroleum diesel fuel. Thus, biodiesel provides a 90% reduction in cancer risks. In sum, the use of biodiesel will also reduce the following emissions:

- carbon monoxide (Carbon Monoxide Emissions – from Carbon Monoxide Kills)

- ozone-forming-hydrocarbons

- hazardous diesel particulates of solid combustion products

- acid rain-causing sulfur dioxide (Info about Acid Rain, from EPA)

- lifecycle carbon dioxide

· The use of biodiesel can extend the life of diesel engines because it is more lubricating than petroleum diesel fuel (Biodiesel Lubricity – from University of Idaho – PDF), while fuel consumption, auto ignition, power output, and engine torque are relatively unaffected by biodiesel.

· Biodiesel is safe to handle and transport because it is as biodegradable as sugar, 10 times less toxic than table salt, and has a high flashpoint of about 300 F compared to petroleum diesel fuel, which has a flash point of 125 F. (Biodiesel Chemical Safety Data – Oxford Univ)

· Biodiesel has almost the same MPG rating as petrodiesel

· Biodiesel readily blends and stays blended with petrodiesel.

· Biodiesel has a very high flash point (300°F) making it one of the safest of all alternative fuels, from a combustibility point. (Biodiesel Flash Point – from Biodiesel Now Forums)

· Biodiesel boasts of a zero total emissions production facility

· Neat vegetable oils pose some problems when subjected to prolonged usage in CI engine. These problems are attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of the neat vegetable oils, and can be reduced significantly by subjecting the vegetable oils to the process of transesterification.

Useful Links: Biodiesel Factsheet

Section 4. Characteristics of Efficient Bio-fuels and Bio-diesels

Biodiesel is noteworthy for its similarity to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, while at the same time having negligible sulfur and ash content. Bioethanol (Bioethanol from Vogelbusch) has only about 70% the heating value of petroleum distillates such as gasoline, but its sulfur and ash contents are also very low. Both of these liquid fuels have lower vapor pressure (Vapor Pressure from Wikipedia) and flammability (Flammability – from Wikipedia) than their petroleum-based competitors – an advantage in some cases (e.g. use in confined spaces such as mines) but a disadvantage in others (e.g. engine starting at cold temperatures).

Despite their wide range of possible sources, biomass feedstocks (What is a Feedstock?) are remarkably uniform in many of their fuel properties, compared with feedstocks such as coal or petroleum. For example, there are many kinds of coals whose gross heating value (Heating Value Definition – from Taftan.com ) ranges from 20 to 30 GJ/T (giga joules per metric tonne). However, nearly all kinds of biomass feedstocks destined for combustion fall in the range 15-19 GJ/T. For most agricultural residues, the heating values are even more uniform – about 15-17 GJ/tonne (6450-7300 Btu/lb); the values for most woody materials are 18-19 GJ/tonne (7750-8200 Btu/lb).

However, in contrast to their fairly uniform physical properties, biomass fuels are rather heterogeneous with respect to their chemical elemental composition.

Most biomass materials are more reactive than coal, with higher ignition stability. This characteristic also makes them easier to process thermochemically into higher-value fuels such as methanol (Methanol as Fuel – from Ethanol GEC) or hydrogen (Hydrogen Fuel – Clean & Secure Energy – White House).

Characteristics of Oils or Fats Affecting their Suitability for Use as Fuel

Calorific Value, Heat of Combustion – Heating Value or Heat of Combustion, is the amount of heating energy released by the combustion of a unit value of fuels.

One of the most important determinants of heating value is moisture content. Air-dried biomass typically has about 15-20% moisture, whereas the moisture content for oven-dried biomass is negligible. Moisture content in coals vary in the range 2-30%. However, the bulk density (and hence energy density) of most biomass feedstocks is generally low, even after densification – between about 10 and 40% of the bulk density of most fossil fuels. Liquid biofuels however have bulk densities comparable to those for fossil fuels.

Melt Point or Pour Point - Melt or pour point refers to the temperature at which the oil in solid form starts to melt or pour. In cases where the temperatures fall below the melt point, the entire fuel system including all fuel lines and fuel tank will need to be heated.

Cloud Point - The temperature at which an oil starts to solidify is known as the cloud point. While operating an engine at temperatures below an oil’s cloud point, heating will be necessary in order to avoid waxing of the fuel. (Cloud Point Definition – from Engineers Edge)

Flash Point (FP) - The flash point temperature of diesel fuel is the minimum temperature at which the fuel will ignite (flash) on application of an ignition source. Flash point varies inversely with the fuel’s volatility. Minimum flash point temperatures are required for proper safety and handling of diesel fuel. (Flash Point – from the MSDS Hyper Glossary, Flash Point – from Wikipedia)

Iodine Value (IV) - Iodine Value (IV) is a value of the amount of iodine, measured in grams, absorbed by 100ml of a given oil. The higher the IV the greater potential the oil has to polymerise. (Determination of Iodine Value – from Bruker Optics, Determination of the Iodine Value of Oils & Fats – IUPAC (PDF), How Relevant is the Iodine Value – USDA ARS (PDF), Iodine Value & Biodiesel – USDA ARS Research Abstract )

Viscosity – Viscosity refers to the thickness of the oil, and is determined by measuring the amount of time taken for a given measure of oil to pass through an orifice of a specified size. Viscosity affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization. Fuels with low viscosity may not provide sufficient lubrication for the precision fit of fuel injection pumps, resulting in leakage or increased wear. Fuel atomization (Atomization – from Wikipedia) is also affected by fuel viscosity. Diesel fuels with high viscosity tend to form larger droplets on injection which can cause poor combustion, increased exhaust smoke and emissions.

Aniline Point/Cetane Number (CN) - Is a relative measure of the interval between the beginning of injection and autoignition of the fuel. The higher the cetane number, the shorter the delay interval and the greater its combustibility. Fuels with low Cetane Numbers will result in difficult starting, noise and exhaust smoke. In general, diesel engines will operate better on fuels with Cetane Numbers above 50.

Cetane tests provide information on the ignition quality of a diesel fuel. Research using cetane tests will provide information on potential tailoring of vegetable oil-derived compounds and additives to enhance their fuel properties. (References – Cetane Number Testing of Bio-diesel – from Biodiesel.org (PDF), Cetane Number – from Sizes.com, How Does Cetane Number Affect Diesel Engine Operation? ).

Density – Is the weight per unit volume. Oils that are denser contain more energy. For example, petrol and diesel fuels give comparable energy by weight, but diesel is denser and hence gives more energy per litre. (Fuel Density)

The aspects listed above are the key aspects that determine the efficiency of a fuel for diesel engines. There are other aspects/characteristics which do not have a direct bearing on the performance, but are important for reasons such as environmental impact etc. These are:

Ash Percentage - Ash is a measure of the amount of metals contained in the fuel. High concentrations of these materials can cause injector tip plugging, combustion deposits and injection system wear. The ash content is important for the heating value, as heating value decreases with increasing ash content.

Ash content for bio-fuels is typically lower than for most coals, and sulphur content is much lower than for many fossil fuels. Unlike coal ash, which may contain toxic metals and other trace contaminants, biomass ash may be used as a soil amendment to help replenish nutrients removed by harvest.

Sulfur Percentage - The percentage by weight, of sulfur in the fuel Sulfur content is limited by law to very small percentages for diesel fuel used in on-road applications. (Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel - PDF)

Potassium Percentage - The percentage by weight, of potassium in the fuel

Engine Manufactures Association (EMA) Recommended Guideline on Diesel Fuel

Property

Test

Method

FQP-1A

EMA

#1 DF(1)

FQP-1A

EMA

#2 DF(1)

Flash Point, °C min.

D 93

38

52

Water, ppm max

D1744

200

200

Sediment, ppm max

D2276 or D5452

10

10

Distillation % Vol. Recovery, °C

D 86



90%, max.


272

332

95%, max.


288

355

Kinematic Viscosity, 40 °C

D 445

1.3 - 2.4

1.9 - 4.1

Ash, % max.

D 482

0.01

0.01

Sulfur, % max.

D 2622

0.05

0.05

Copper Corrosion, max.

D 130

3b

3b

Cetane Number, min.

D 613

50

50

Cetane Index, min.

D 4737

45

45

Rams Carbon, 10% residue max.

D 524

0.15

0.15

API Gravity, max.

D 287

43

39

Lubricity, g. min.

D6078(2)

3100

3100

Accelerated Stability, mg/L max.

D 2274

15

15

Detergency - L10 Injector

CRC Rating

<10

<10

Depositing Test

% Flow Loss

<6

<6

Low Temperature Flow, °C

D2500 or D4539

(3)

(3)

Microbial Growth


(4)

(4)

Source: Engine Manufacturers Association

More Links on Biodiesel Properties

· Chemical Properties of Biodiesel, Iowa State University

· Biodiesel Analysis from Chancellor College

· New Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production – Analysis of its Physico-Chemicals Properties (PDF)

· Stability of Biodiesel and Its Iodine Value – Brevard Biodiesel

· Physical & Chemical Characteristics of Biodiesel Blends – from Biodiesel.org (PDF)

· Biodiesel Recipe – from Wikipedia

· Chemistry of Biofuel – fom A42.com

· Fuel Chemistry

· Biodiesel Overview & Characteristics from University of North Dakota

· The Kinematic Viscosity of Biodiesel & Its Blends with Diesel Fuel (PDF)

· Contamination or Dilution of Lubricating Oils in Biodiesel Powered Vehicles

· Technical Performance of Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters with High Iodine Number (PDF)

· Biodiesel Energy Content – form Biodiesel.org (PDF)

· Effect of Biodiesel Composition on NOx & PM Emissions (PDF)

· Biodiesel Cold Flow Guidelines – Greencar Congress

· Understanding Biofuel Fuel Quality & Performances (PDF)

· Biodiesel FAQ – from Govt of Maryland – Provides Comparison of Biodiesel and Petro Diesel Characteristics

· Lubricity of Biofuel ( see homepage: Biodiesel.de )

· Biodiesel Specs & Requirements Listing, Office of the Federal Environmental Executive, Govt of USA (PDF)

· Biodiesel Flash Point Forum from Biodiesel Now

· Environmental & Safety Info for Biodiesel – from ABG Biodiesel (PDF)

· Understanding Biodiesel Fuel Quality & Performance (PDF)

· Flash Point Testing – the Definitive Test Method

· Biodiesel Fuels Between Acceptance & Quality (PDF)

· Cetane Number Testing of Biodiesel (PDF)

· Cetane in Diesel Fuel – from Global Finest

· Measuring Cetane Number – Options for Diesel & Alternative Diesel Fuels (PDF)

· Bubblewashing Biodiesel & Emulsions – Especially for Homebrew Bioediesel

· Process for Producing Biodiesel Fuel with Reduced Viscosity & Cloud Point Temperature

· Business Management for Biodiesel Producers (PDF)

· Biodiesel Use in Engines – North Dakota State University

· Biodiesel Performance, Costs & Use – Dept of Energy, Govt of USA

· Biodiesel Info from Biodiesel SA, South Africa

· Biodiesel Resource

· Ask Ben Biodiesel FAQ

· Biodiesel & the Environment – from Navigating our Future

· Instructions for the Transport of Biodiesel (PDF)

· Biodiesel Handling & Use Guidelines (PDF)

· Technique for Analysis of Biodiesel – Metrohm UK

· Fatty Acid Methyl Esters with a High Iodine Number (PDF)

· Animal Fats Perform Well in Biodiesel (PDF)

· Production of Biodiesel from Multiple Feedstocks (PDF)

· Standardisation of Biodiesel, Netherlands (PDF)

· Tiny Microreactor Rethinks Biodiesel Production

· Biodiesel in Oregon – from the Government of Oregon

· Biodiesel Info from Biofuel Systems, UK (Biofuel Process, Biofuel Chemistry)

· Biofuel Performance, Costs & Use – Department of Energy, Govt of USA

· The Modern & Profitable Biodiesel Production Plant (PDF)

· How to make Rape Biodiesel More Financially Feasible

· Biodiesel Plant Info – from VegetableOilDiesel.co.uk

· Biodiesel Equipment from Doctor Diesel

· Description of the Biodiesel Production Unit from Biodiesel Technologies GmbH

· Biodiesel Equipment & Supplies from Biofuel Systems

· Making Biodiesel – from SchNews

· Green Fuels – European Biodiesel Equipment Supplier

· Biomass Oil Analysis – Research Needs & Recommendations (PDF)

· Characterization of Biodiesel Oxidation & Oxidation Products (PDF)

Section 5. All about Petroleum Diesel

  • Difference between Diesel & Gasoline Fuels

Section 6. All about Diesel Engines

  • Differences between Gasoline & Diesel Engines

Section 7. Biodiesel & Gasoline Engines – Bio-gasoline?

Section 8. How is Bio-diesel Produced from Plant Oils?

The major problem associated with the use of pure vegetable oils as fuels for diesel engines is caused by high fuel viscosity (Viscosity – from Physics Hypertextbook) in compression ignition. The vegetable oils are all highly viscous, with viscosities ranging 10–20 times those of no. 2 Diesel fuel. Amongst vegetable oils in the context of viscosity, castor oil is in a class by itself, with a viscosity more than 100 times that of no. 2 Diesel fuel (MSDS of No.2 Diesel Fuel – PetroCard). Due to their high viscosity and low volatility, they do not burn completely and form deposits in the fuel injector of diesel engines. Furthermore, acrolein (a highly toxic substance) ( Acrolein – from EPA) is formed through thermal decomposition of glycerol (Glycerol – from Info Please).

Dilution, micro-emulsification (Emulsions & Emulsification – from Wikipedia), pyrolysis ( Pyrolysis Definition from AFR) and transesterification are the four techniques applied to solve the problems encountered with the high fuel viscosity. Amongst the four techniques, chemical conversion of the oil to its corresponding fatty ester is the most promising solution to the high viscosity problem. This process - chemical conversion of the oil to its corresponding fatty ester, and thus biodiesel - is called transesterification.

What is transesterification?

· The process of converting vegetable oil into biodiesel fuel is called transesterification, and is fortunately much less complex than it sounds.

· Transesterification refers to a reaction between an ester (Ester – from Wikipedia) of one alcohol and a second alcohol to form an ester of the second alcohol and an alcohol from the original ester, as that of methyl acetate and ethyl alcohol to form ethyl acetate and methyl alcohol ( see also interesterification – Interesterification – from Cyber Lipid) . Chemically, transesterification means taking a triglyceride molecule or a complex fatty acid, neutralizing the free fatty acids, removing the glycerin and creating an alcohol ester. This is accomplished by mixing methanol with sodium hydroxide to make sodium methoxide (Sodium Methoxide – from Great Vista Chemicals, Sodium Methoxide MSDS – JT Baker) . This liquid is then mixed into vegetable oil. The entire mixture then settles. Glycerin is left on the bottom and methyl esters, or biodiesel, is left on top. The glycerin can be used to make soap (or any one of 1600 other products) and the methyl esters is washed and filtered.

· Transesterification is not a new process. Scientists E. Duy and J. Patrick conducted it as early as 1853. One of the first uses of transesterified vegetable oil was powering heavy-duty vehicles in South Africa before World War II.

More Links on Transesterification

Biodiesel Manufacturing Equipment

· Biodiesel Equipment, Kits Directory – from Eco Business Links

· Biodiesel Gear – Biodiesel Equipments, Processing & Related Information

· Testing

· Biodiesel Fuel Testing – from Intertek Caleb Brett

Other Methods of Producing Bio-diesel

Other than transesterification, the other methods that have been considered to reduce the high viscosity of vegetable oils are:

· dilution of 25 parts of vegetable oil with 75 parts of diesel fuel

· microemulsions with short chain alcohols (e.g. ethanol or methanol)

· thermal decomposition, which produces alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds

· catalytic cracking, which produces alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkylbenzenes, and

However, when compared with the above, the transesterification process appears to be the best choice, as the physical characteristics of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) are very close to those of diesel fuel, and the process is relatively simple. Furthermore, the methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids can be burned directly in unmodified diesel engines, with very low deposit

More Bio-diesel Production Links

The following web sites provide more inputs on the various methods to produce bio-diesel, including the transesterification process.

· Biodiesel Production Methods – from Distribution Drive

· Biodiesel Analytical Methods – from National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA (PDF)

· Chemical Biodiesel Microreactor

· How to Make Biodiesel – SchNew, UK

· Advanced Biodiesel Production Methods Forums – from Biodiesel Now

· Biodiesel Production Resources – from Wikipedia

· Biodiesel Production Methods & Costs

· An Improved Method for the Production of Ethyl Ester Biodiesel

· Making Biodiesel – from Utah Biodiesel

· Publications of Thomas Foglia, Agricultural Research Service, USDA

· Tiny Microreactor for Biodiesel Production – University of Oregon

· Better Biodiesel – New Biodiesel Production Technology

· New Technologies for Making Biofuels

· Development of Biodiesel by Supercritical Methanol (PDF)

· Potential Production of Biodiesel – from University of Idaho (PDF)

· Small-scale Biodiesel Production – from Energy Line 2000

· Making Biodiesel – from Biodiesel Update

· Research into Biodiesel Kinetics & Catalyst Development (PDF)

· Biodiesel Basics (PDF)

· Biodiesel Production Process

· Biodiesel Production Info from Biodiesel.org (PDF)

· Breakthrough in Biodiesel Production by Japanese Scientists

· Collaborative Biodiesel Production Tutorial

· Biodiesel Production Technology, NREL.gov (PDF)

· Small-scale Biodiesel Production Feaibility Report, Uiuc.edu (PDF)

· Biodiesel Handling & Use Guidelines (PDF)

· Biodiesel Production Research Abstracts

· Veg Conversion of Diesel Engine for SVO

· Validation of a Model for Biodiesel Production

Section 9. Plant Oils as Bio-diesel

A variety of biolipids (Biolipds are lipids from biological sources. Lipids are a class of organic compounds essential for the structure and function of living cells, fats are a subset of lipids, belonging to a subcategory of lipids called triglycerides) can be used to produce biodiesel. The main plants whose oils have been considered as feedstock for bio-fuel are: soybean oil, rapeseed oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil & jatropha oil. Others in the contention are mustard, hemp, castor oil, waste vegetable oil, and in some cases, even algae. There is ongoing research into finding more suitable crops and improving oil yield. (Biodiesel – A Brief Overview From ATTRA – provides a table of oil-bearing plants having potential for biodisel)

A complete list of oils that appear to have the potential for biodiesel is provided below ( in alphabetical order of the plant name)

Algae as Bio-diesel

The production of algae to harvest oil for biodiesel has not been undertaken on a commercial scale, but working feasibility studies have been conducted to arrive at the above yield estimate. In addition to a high yield, this solution does not compete with agriculture for food, requiring neither farmland nor fresh water.

· Widescale Biodiesel Production from Algae – University of North Hampshire

· Algae – Like a Breath Mint for Smokestacks – Christian Science Monitor

· Biodiesel from Algae – from Biodiesel Encyclopedia

Artichoke & Biodiesel

· Cynara Cardunculus as an Alternative Crop for Biodiesel Production (MS Word Document)

· Feeding Ourselves or Driving Our Cars – the Tale of the Humble Artichoke – from Transition Culture

Biomass & Bio-diesel

· Feasibility of Producing Diesel Fuels from Biomass in New Zealand, Energy Efficiency & Conservation Authority, Govt of New Zealand (PDF)

Canola Oil as Bio-diesel

· Biodiesel from Canola Oil – University of Ballarat, Australia

· NDSU to Test Properties of Canola-based Biodiesel

· Canola Biodiesel – from CanolaInfo.org

· Bioenergy Biodiesel from Canola Oil (PDF)

Castor Oil as Bio-diesel

· Castor Oil as Bio-diesel & Biofuel – from CastorOil.in

· Energy in a Castor Bean – from Tierramerica

Coconut Oil as Biodiesel

· Possibility of Using Coconut Oil as Fuel Substitute for Diesel Engines (Microsoft PPT Format)

· Coconut Methyl Ester as Coco Biodiesel

· Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Coconut Biofuel (PDF)

· Coconut Oil as a Biofuel in Pacific Islands – Challenges & Opportunities

Corn Oil as Bio-diesel

· Mean Green Biofuels Convertts Corn Oil into Biodiesel – Oil & Gas Online

· Corn Oil Extractor Hits Market – from Argus Leader

Cottonseed Oil as Biodiesel

· Economic Circumstances of Cottonseed Oil as Biodiesel (PDF)

Flax Oil as Biodiesel

· The oil from linseed/flax plant can also be considered for biodiesel. Research is ongoing in this area.

Hemp Oil as Bio-diesel

· Hemp Farm Bio-diesel Information

· Pollution - Petrol vs. Hemp – from HempCar.org

Jatropha Oil as Bio-diesel

In India and southeast Asia, the Jatropha tree is used as a significant fuel source, and it is also planted for watershed protection and other environmental restoration efforts.

· Biofuel for Electricity in Remote Lao Villages - from Sunlabob (PDF)

· Jatropha, a Different Biofuel, from Pratie Place

· Oil from a Wasteland – the Jatropha Project in India – from Daimler Chryser

· Bio-diesel from Wastelands - NABARD

· Case Study for Jatropha (PDF)

· Biodiesel from Jatropha Plantations on Eroded Soils (PDF)

· Jatropha & Moringa – Sources of Renewable Energy & Fuel

Jojoba Oil as Biodiesel

· Jojoba Fuel – from Tree Hugger

· Jojoba Oil Could Fuel Cars & Trucks – New Scientist

Karanj Plant (Pongamia pinnata) as Biodiesel

· Why Karanj is Better than Jatropha?

· Jatropha vs. Karanj – Biodiesel Now

Kukui Nut Oil as Biodiesel

· Student Makes Fuel from Kukui Nuts

Milk Bush/Pencil Bush (Euphorbia tirucalli) as Biodiesel

· Euphorbia tirucalli from Purdue University

· Bio-engineering of Crops for Biofuel & Bio-energy (PDF)

Mustard Oil

Specially bred mustard varieties can produce reasonably high oil yields, and have the added benefit that the meal leftover after the oil has been pressed out can act as an effective and biodegradable pesticide.

· Bio-diesel from Yellow Mustard Oil – University of Idaho

Palm Oil as Bio-diesel

Malaysia and Indonesia are starting pilot-scale production from palm oil. Palm oil so far proved to be efficient as biodiesel.

· Palm Oil Biodiesel from Cogeneration.net

· Consultant Says Palm Oil Biodiesel has More Potential – from New Energy Report

· Malaysia to Switch to Palm Oil Bio-diesel – from Happy News

· Palm Oil Biodiesel has More Potential for Longevity?

Peanut Oil as Biodiesel

· History of Biofuels – from Yokayo Biofuels

Radish Oil as Bio-diesel

· Biodiesel – Farming for the Future

Rapeseed Oil as Bio-diesel

In Europe, rapeseed is the most common base oil used in biodiesel production.

· Rapeseed Bio-diesel from Cogeneration.net

· The Power of Rapeseed – from Deutsche Welle, Germany

· Rapeseed Methyl Ester – from BioMatNet

· Development of Rapeseed Bio-diesel for Use in High-speed Diesel Engines – from Biodiesel.org (PDF)

· Biodiesel Experiences in Yugoslavia – from Biodiesel.org (PDF)

· Biodiesel Production Potential from Industrial Rapeseed (PDF)

· Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Oilseed Rape (PDF)

Rice Bran Oil as Bio-diesel

· Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters from Rice Bran Oil (PDF)

· Acid Catalyzed Trans-esterification of Rice Bran Oil for Bio-diesel Production (PDF)

Safflower Oil as Bio-diesel

· Safflower Oil in your Tank – from Clean City News

Soybean Oil as Bio-diesel

Soybeans are not a very efficient crop solely for the production of biodiesel, but their common use in the United States for food products has led to soybean biodiesel becoming the primary source for biodiesel in that country. Soybean producers have lobbied to increase awareness of soybean biodiesel, expanding the market for their product.

· Fuelling Diesel Engines with Blends of Methyl Ester Soybean Oil & Diesel Fuel – University of Missouri (PDF)

· Soybean Oil in Jet Fuels – from USDA

· Transesterification of Soybean Oil with Zeolite & Metal Catalysts (PDF)

Sunflower Oil as Bio-diesel

· Sunflower Crop Feasibility for Bio-diesel Production in Spain – from EECI.net

Tung Oil as Biodiesel

· Details of Fuels – Greenhouse, Australia (PDF)

Section 10. Ethanol as Diesel-fuel

Ethanol is not plant oil, but is an alcohol that is primarily derived from sugarcane molasses, but is included here for completeness.

· Ethanol Marketplace

· Ethanol in India

· Ethanol Boosted Gasoline Engines – from MIT, Boston (PDF)

· Simple Introduction to Ethanol as Bio-fuel – from EIA Energy Kids Page

· Resources for Ethanol as Fuel – Free Energy News

· Ethanol Resources Online – from Journey to Forever

· Ethanol Page – from Canadian Agricultural Energy End-use

· Biofuel & Ethanol Article from the Economist

· Ethanol & Bio-fuel Facts – from Cecarf

· Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass & Wood (PDF)

· Eucalyptus Biomass Fuels – Price Competitive or Way off the Money? (PDF)

Ethanol & Biodiesel – Compare & Contrast

· Ethanol & Biodiesel – North Dakota Renewable Energy Summit (PDF)

· Ethanol & Biodiesel – Questions & Answers – Office of Research, State of Tennessee (PDF)

· IEA Bioenergy Task – Final Summary Report – Liquid Biofuels

Section 11. The Economics & Sustainability of Bio-diesel

No one is questioning whether or not biodiesel is a good idea. It is, without doubt. The real topic that is debated hotly today is whether biodiesel is an economically sustainable idea, given the costs of production, fossil and non-fossil energy spent for producing energy from biodiesel, opportunity costs for the respective plant oils, and the competing fuels (mainly fossil fuels) already available.

The following web resources focus on the economics, cost-benefits & sustainability of bio-fuels in general and biodiesel in particular.

· Academic Study Discredits Ethanol, Biodiesel – from Renewable Energy Access (see the original study document here)

· Ethanol for Fuel Fundamentally Uneconomic, Says Study

· International Resource Costs of Biodiesel & Bioethanol, Dept of Transport, Govt of UK (PDF)

· Energy Balance – from Piedmont Biofuels

· Green Technology isn’t Always Green – from USA Today

· Ethanol & Methanol as Bio-fuels for ICEs – Envocare, UK (see their Alternative Energy & Renewable Energy Sources Page for more resources)

· Sustainability of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle (PDF)

· Biofuel, some Numbers – from Grist

· Interesting Blog Comments on Energy Efficiencies of Biofuel and Bio-diesel – Future Pundit (skip the article and see the comments!)

· Biodiesel Experiment (PDF)

· Feasibility of Biodiesel from Waste/Recycled Greases & Animal Fats (PDF)

· The Economic Efficiency of Production & Use of Biodiesel – Report from Estonia (PDF)

· Biodiesel – European Overview (PDF)

· On-farm Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oil (PDF)

· The Economics of Engine Replacement/Repair for Biodiesel Fuels (PDF)

· Energy Use & Emissions from Bio-fuels – University of California, Davis (PDF)

· Biofuels – Is it Worth Considering? (PDF)

· Growing Biodiesel in North Dakota (PDF)

· Basic Biodiesel Economics – from Entropy Production

· Biodiesel Economics in Brazil (PDF)

· A Biodiesel Breakthrough – from Biocap, Canada (PDF)

· Transesterification & Biodiesel Production

· Biofuels around the World – Canadian Renewable Fuels Association

· Biodiesel Education – Economic Considerations – from Iowa State University

· Biodiesel Economics – from University of Alberta, Canada (PDF)

· Biodiesel Production, Costs & Use – Department of Energy, Govt of USA (PDF)

· Biofuel Info from the Government of New Zealand (PDF)

· Cost Implications of Feedstock Combinations for Community Sized Bio-diesel Production (PDF)

· A Study on the Feasibility of Biodiesel Production in Georgia (PDF)

· Biodiesel in British Columbia – a Feasibility Study

· Biodiesel – the Sustainability Dimension – from ATTRA (PDF)

· Biodiesels Made Easy (MS Word Doc)

· The Uncertain Future of Bio-diesel – from the Dominion, Canada

· Lots of Biodiesel Resources from Agricultural Marketing Resource Center

· Department of Agricultural Economics – Kansas State University

· Biodiesel – An Industry Poised for Growth? Choices Magazine

· Research Activities on Bio-diesel @ Indian Institute of Petroleum (PPT format)

· Cost Benefit Analysis of Adoption of Biodiesel in Diesel Fuel (PDF)

· Costs of Biodiesel Production – from Govt of New Zealand (PDF)

· Potential Niche Fuel Markets for Biodiesel (PDF)

· Biodiesel & Deforestation

· Biodiesel – Fuel for Thought, Fuel for Connecticut’s Future (PDF)

· Testing the Biodiesel Bandwagon

· How Green is the New Biodiesel Movement?

· Feaibility of Biodiesel from Waste Recycled Grease and Animal Fats (PDF)

· Ethanol vs Biodiesel vs Gasoline – the Environment Forum

· Industry Argues that Ethanol Delivers – from A Journey to Forever

· Biodiesel Basics – from Utah Biodiesel

· Opportunities in Community-Scale Biodiesel (PDF)

· The Case for Biodiesel – Washington University (PDF)

· Cost of Biodiesel vs Regular Diesel – from Oregon Biofuels

· An Economic Analysis of Small-scale Biodiesel Production (PDF)

· Economics of Jatropha Biodiesel

· Biodiesel – The Sustainability Dimensions (PDF)

· Biodiesel Economics – University of Alberta, Canada (PDF)

· Comparison of LCA & External Cost Analysis for Biodiesel & Diesel (PDF)

· Comparison of the Externalities of the Biodiesel Fuel Chains & Other Fuel Chains (PDF)

· International Resource Costs of Bioethanol & Biodiesel

· Costs of Biodiesel Production – Govt of New Zealand (PDF)

· WA Sustainability Case Studies – Biodiesel

· Problems in Biofuel Utilisation – A Swedish Perspective (PDF)

· Biodiesel – The Sustainability Dimension

· The Real Biofuel Cycles – University of California, Berkeley (PDF)

· Biodiesel Begins to Make Economic Sense – University of Arkansas

· Brazil’s Biofuel Plan is not Sustainable

· Amount of Biodiesel That Could be Produced from Available Land in the Uk – An Estimate

· Biodiesel – Bad Idea – Grist.org

Section 12. Biodiesel Case Studies

· Evaluating Biodiesel as a Value-added Opportunity (PDF)

· Biodiesel Fuel in John Deere Tractors

· Cold Weather Issues for Biodiesel – from Planet Biodiesel

· Comparison of Transport Fuels – from Govt of Australia (PDF)

· SMILE Project – Biodiesel from Waste Oil

· Heat your Homes with Biodiesel – from Biofuels for Oregon

· Biodiesel Benz – Converting a Mercedes Benz to Run on Biodiesel

· Case Studies for Altrenative Fuels – US Dept of Energy

· The Development of Biodiesel (PDF)

· Study of Energy Crops for Heat & Power – from Biodiesel.co.uk

· Sustainable Energy Development – Brazil’s Case Study

· Biodiesel Fleet Use & Benefits (PDF)

· From Vegetable Oil to Motor Vehicle Fuel – AIUS, Australia

· Case Study from Biogreen Energy Products Ltd (PDF)

· Homebrew Biodiesel – A Case Study (PDF)

· Study of Biodiesel from Tallow (PDF)

· Lifecycle Inventory of Biodiesel & Petroleum Diesel (PDF)

· Biodiesel Production & Economics Case Study

· Biodiesel from Canola Oil, University of Ballarat, Australia

· Use of Biodiesels in Vehicles – US Department of Energy

· Tier 1 Biodiesel Pilot Project – from Biofleet of British Columbia, Canada (PDF)

· Environmental Performance & Eco-efficiency of Using Biodiesel (PDF)

· Voyageurs National Park Biodiesel Program (PDF)

· Study to Evaluate the Feasibility of Biodiesel Production (PDF)

· Lifecycle Assessment of Biodiesel (PDF)

· Contribution from Bio-energy to Local Economic Development (PDF)

· Biofuels for CHP in Buildings (PDF)

· Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest – A Feasibility Study (PDF)

· Economic Analysis of Small-scale Biodiesel Production (PDF)

· Assessing Biodiesel for the Sandby Generators in the Olympic Peninsula (PDF)

· UC David Biodiesel Study – A Summary

· Comparsion of Transportation Fuels (PDF)

· The Use of Biofuels with Cummins Automotive Engines (PDF)

· Biodiesel Usage Info from Volkswagen (PDF)

Biodiesel in North America

· Pennsylvania’s First Commercial Biodiesel Plant

· Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest – a Feasibility Study (PDF)

· Markets for Canola Biodiesel in Canada

· Biodiesel for Arkansas (PDF)

· Study for a Potential New York State Biodiesel Industry (PDF)

· Biodiesel Production Begins in Minnesota

· Biodiesel Task-force – State of Minnesota

· Biodiesel Research Update 2004 – from Dept of Energy, Govt of USA (PDF)

· Tennessee Soybean Producers Views on Biodiesel Marketing (PDF)

· Biodiesel – Is it Oregon’s Next Cutting Edge Crop?

· Seattle Biodiesel Set to Expand (PDF)

· Producing Biodiesel from Canola in Inland Northwest (PDF)

· Critical Review of Biodiesel as a Transportation Fuel in Canada (PDF)

· Biobus Project, Canada (PDF)

· Biodiesel – US Overview – from Bosch (PDF)

· On-road Testing of Biodiesel – University of Idaho

· Biodiesel Fuel Standards & Specifications USA

· BiodieselAmerica.org

· Cargill to Build Biodiesel Plant at Iowa Falls Facility (PDF)

· Biodiesel Plant for North Dakota

· Biofuel Use in Underground Mines

· Large Biodiesel Plant Construction in Indiana

· Biodiesel Users List @ National Biodiesel Board (USA)

· Virginia Biodiesel

· Biodiesel – Made in Manitoba (PDF)

· Harvard Makes Smart Moves to Biodiesel (PDF)

Biodiesel in Europe

· Creating a Successful Biodiesel Market in the UK (PDF)

· Standardisation of Biofuel – Government of Austria (PDF)

· Towards a UK Strategy for Biofuels

· Biodiesel Development & Outlook in Germany & Europe (PDF)

· Palm Oil Biodiesel in Netherlands (PDF)

· European Biodiesel Board (and Euro Biodiesel Stats )

· Biodiesel Production in Europe

· Biodiesel Boom in Europe

· Biodiesel in Europe – from Render Magazine

· France Plans to Triple Biofuel Output

· France to Accelerate Green Diesel Output

· EU – Biodiesel Industry Expanding Use of Oilseeds (PDF)

· Liquid Biofuels – Competitiveness of EU Manufacturers

· The Facts on Biodiesel & Bioethanol

· Biodiesel, UK

· Clean Air Initiative – Biodiesel in Germany

· Biodiesel Production & Marketing in Germany – Project BioBus (PDF)

· Rapeseed Production for Biodiesel in Germany

· Germany “Growing” Biodiesel

· Lurgi to Build Biodiesel Plant in Germany

· Bioenergy – New Growth for Germany (PDF)

· Evolution of Rape in Belgium & Its Utilisation as Biofuel

· Biodiesel Chains

· Biopetrol to Build Large Biodiesel Plant in Rotterdam

· Promotion of the Use of Biofuels for Transport in Greece (PDF)

Biodiesel in South America

Biodiesel Case Studies in Other Geographies

· Comparison of Transport Fuels – from Govt of Australia (PDF)

· Thai Biodiesel

· Biofuels in the Developing World

· India’s Unique Sources of Fuel for Electricity & Transportation (PDF)

· Indian State to Plant 150 Million Jatropha Plants – Green Car Congress

Section 13. Biodiesel Forums, Discussion Boards & Blogs

Section 14. Bio-diesel – Research & Future Trends

The following web resources provide inputs on the various research activities happening in the biodiesel front:

· Biodiesel Second Generation Technology – IFP, France (PDF)

· Clean Energy Trends – from Clean Edge (PDF)

· Regional (US) Trends in Biofuels – Maryland Biofuels Workshop (PDF)

· European Biodiesel Board

· UNH Biodiesel Group

· Biodiesel Homepage @ Iowa State University

· Utah Co-operative Biodiesel Links

· New Markets for Biodiesel Blends & Trends in California (PDF)

· The Modern & Profitable Biodiesel Production Plant (PDF)

· Biofuels for Transport – an International Perspective – from IEA (PDF)

· Biodiesel – Fuel for the Future – Sustainability Strategy, Government of Australia

· How Biodiesel Works – from How Stuff Works

· University of Idaho Biodiesel Homepage

· Biodiesel Research from University of Missouri

· Alternative Fuels Data Center – from Dept of Energy, Govt of USA

· Biodiesel Blog

· Current Research on Biodiesel Fuel in Japan (PDF)

· Research into Biodiesel Kinetics & Catalyst Development (PDF)

Section 15. Bio-diesel Links & Directory Pages

These page provide (similar to ours) links to a large number of biodiesel resources on the web. We hope you find these useful

· Biodiesel Links from Utah Biodiesel

· Biodiesel Related Links from Distribution Drive

· Biodiesel Links Page from A42

· Biodiesel & Renewable Energy Links page from Boulder Biodiesel

· Bio-diesel Links from Biodiesel Now

· A Short List of Bio-diesel Sites – from Diesel Net

· Links – from Biodiesel.org

· A Short List of Biodiesel Links from Houston Biodiesel

Section 16. Articles & Opinions

· Strategies for Bio-diesel, from Good News India

· Biodiesel – Diesel without the Dinosaurs

· Biodiesel in Bellingham

Section 17. Biodiesel - Questions & More Questions

Can animal fat be used as biodiesel?

· KMB Tests Biodiesel from Pork Fat – Joruney to Forever

· Biodiesel Produced from Animal Fat in Styria (PDF)

· Any Downside to Using Animal Fat for Biodiesel? – Biodiesel Now Forums

· Animal Fats Perform Well in Biodiesel – Render Magazine (PDF)

· Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production – Critical Review of Literature (PDF)

How long would petro-diesel/gasoline last?

· Long Term World Oil Supply – Dept of Energy, Govt of USA ( see also here)

· How long will the World’s Oil Last ? – Energy Bulletin

What are the other alternatives to biodiesel?

· Alternative Fuels Data Center – Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Govt of USA

· Alternative Fuels Portal – from Petroleum Equipment Institute

· Alternative Fuel Station Locator (US)

· Alternative Fuel Vehicle Directory

What are the key disadvantages of biodiesel?

· Biodiesel Fuel – from CPast

· Advantages & Disadvantages of Biodiesel – Fuel Economy

What is the cost of biodiesel vis a vis petro diesel?

· Projected Production Cost for Diesel Fuel by Feedstock – Dept of Energy, Govt of USA

· Cost of Biodiesel – from Biodiesel Now Forums

· Biodiesel Performance, Costs & Use – Dept of Energy, Govt of USA

Can I make biodiesel at home?

· Make your Own Biodiesel – from Journey to Forever

· Making Biodiesel Fuel @ Home – Bagel Hole

· Making Biodiesel at Home – A Resource Guide (PDF)

What is the experience of biodiesel made from waste oil?

· Fuel from Waste

· Urban Waste to Biodiesel Initiative (PDF)

· On Farm Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oil (PDF)

How much biodiesel would be required to completely replace petro-diesel? What % of this is available currently?

The current world consumption of petro-fuels is about 12 Million Tons per day = about 5 billion T per annum. Since the energy provided by biodiesel is slightly (about 10%) lower than that of petro-fuels, the world would require about 5.5 billion T of bio-diesel to completely replace petro-diesel, at the current levels of consumption. The total world production of vegetable oils was only about 0.06 billion T in 2005. That is, the total production of vegetable oil in the world is just one-hundredth of what will be required for complete replacement. It is easy to see that it very early days for biodiesel. (see also: What is Biodiesel – from Becon, Iowa State University)

What are the likely scenarios with regard to biodiesel usage in future?

· Biofuels & the Future – Possible Scenarios – Biodiesel.co.uk

· Managing Future Fuels Complexity (PDF)

· Future Energy Development - Wikipedia

What is the chemical structure of biodiesel?

· Biodiesel Transesterification – Iowa State University (PDF)

· The Chemistry & Efficiency of Producing Biodiesel (PDF)

Can biodiesel be produced at lower costs at much higher capacities – economies of scale?

· Feasibility Study for a Michigan Biodiesel Plant (PDF)

· Vegetable Oils Fuels – form Govt of Alberta, Canada

What are the various forms of bio-energy?

· Bio-energy – from BioPortal, Canada

· Hot Links to Bioenergy – from Discover Solar Energy

Are there any changes I should make to my diesel engine in order to use biodiesel?

Biodiesel can be used without any changes to a diesel engine.

Are there more biodiesel FAQs on the web?

· Biodiesel FAQ – from Biodiesel.org

· Biodiesel FAQ – from Ecology Center

· Biodiesel FAQ from Argent Energy

· Biodiesel FAQ from SeaPort Biofuels

· Biodiesel FAQ – from Vermont Biofuels

Are there alternative methods of biodiesel processing/manufacture currently being contemplated?

Transesterification is the main process that is used to make biodiesel from plant and vegetable oils. The alternative methods (to transesterification) are:

· dilution of 25 parts of vegetable oil with 75 parts of diesel fuel

· microemulsions with short chain alcohols (e.g. ethanol or methanol)

· thermal decomposition, which produces alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds

· catalytic cracking, which produces alkanes, cycloalkanes and alkylbenzenes

Tell me more about Biodiesel blends with petro-diesel/gasoline?

· Blends – from Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Govt of USA

· Biodiesel Blends in Microturbines (PDF)

· Biodiesel Info from CICCA

Biodiesel Glossaries

· Biodiesel Glossary – from DFW Biodiesel

· Biodiesel Glossary – from Spinninglobe

· Glossary of Biodiesel Production – from Planet Fuels

· Biodiesel Glossary – from Boulder Biodiesel

· Glossary of Biodiesel Terms – form Biodiesel Homekit

What are the legacy petro companies response to biodiesel?

· Oilheat Dealers Consider Offering Bioheat

· Setting a National Standard for Biodiesel – Australian Institute of Petroleum (PDF)

· Biodiesel Boosted by Big Oil? – from Tree Hugger

Which are the major companies foraying into biodiesel?

· 2005 Biodiesel Industry Directory

· Biodiesel Oil Distributors – United States

What are the market segments for biodiesel?

Market Segment - Electricity Generation

· Biodiesel for Electricity Generation – from Biodiesel.org

· Alternative Fuels for Transport & Electricity Generation (PDF)

· The Use of Palm Oil for Electricity Generation in the Amazon Region (PDF)

Market Segment - Farming

· Biodiesel in the Farm Market Segment – form Biodiesel.org

· Biodiesel Farming Forum – from Biodiesel Now

· Biodiesel for All Farm Equipment – Long Meadow Ranch News

Market Segment - Fleets

· Biodiesel for Fleets – from Biodiesel.org

· Biodiesel Offers Fleets a Better Alternative to Petroleum Diesel – World Energy.net (PDF)

· San Francisco Tour Company Switches to Biodiesel

Market Segment - Heating Oil

· Biodiesel as Home Heating Oil – Biodiesel.org

· Bioheating Oil – from Journey to Forever

· Heat your Home with Biodiesel – Mother Earth News

· Biodiesel for Home Heating – form Green Car Congress

Market Segment - Marine

· Biodiesel in the Marine Industry – Biodiesel.org

· Biodiesel for Marine Operations – SEA 02

· Biodiesel for Marine Use – from Sport Fishing

Biodiesel Publications & Magazines

· Biodiesel Fuels Publications – from National Renewable Energy Laboratories

· Render Magazine

Can Biodiesel help mitigate global warming?

· Fight Global Warming from Home

· Evaluation of the Comparable Energy, Global Warming & Socio-economic Costs & Benefits of Biodiesel (PDF)

· Global Warming Solutions – Blue Water Network (PDF)

Section 18. Biodiesel Links A-Z

Austrian Biofuels Institute
American Coalition for Ethanol
An Overview of Bio-fuel Technologies, Markets & Policies in Europe (PDF)
Alternative Fuel Choices Growing for Diesel Engine Operators
American Bio-energy Association

Biofuel Based on Non-edible Oils
Bacterial Bio-fuels? – from USDA
Biofuels & Sustainable Transport Energy
Bio-fuels & the Future – from Biodiesel, UK New
Biofuel Resources from Solar Oil Systems, Netherlands
Biodiesel Association of Australia New
Biodiesel Info from Philadelphia Clean Cities New
Bio-diesel Production Estimates for the UK
Bio-diesel, a Brief Overview – from ATTRA
Bio-diesel Properties Analysis – from Chancellor College
Bio-diesel – from Earth Toys
Biomass Oil Analysis – Research Needs & Recommendations – from NREL, USA (PDF)
Bio-diesel Strategies for Latin America & Earth (PDF)
Bio-diesel Production – from Department of Energy, Government of USA (PDF)
Bio-diesel Economics in Brazil (PDF)
Biofuel & Bio-energy Bibliography – Government of USA
Bio-diesel from Rapeseed - Preparation Process & Details from Degussa
Biofuel Resources from Hempcar.org
Biodiesel Links & Information – from Marcus Sharpe New
Biyodizel Resources - Govt of Turkey
Bio-diesel Links from Blooming Futures
Biopower Web Resources from Ecopower
Bio-diesel from Recycled Vegetable Oil – Griffin Industries (PDF)
Biorefineries & Biofuels – from Petrobras
Bio-diesel Fuel – from University of Missouri Extension
British Association for Bio-fuels & Oils
Biomass for Biofuel isn’t Worth It – from Cornell University
Brief History of Biodiesel Production – from Planet Fuels
Building a Modern Bio-economy – Queens University, Canada (PDF)
Bio-energy Today? – from USDA
Bio-diesel Solutions – Homebrew Biodiesel
Biodiesel – Farming for the Future
Bio-diesel Summary of Crops, Data & Statistics – from GreenHouse, Australia (PDF)
Biofuels – FAQs, from Task39.org
Biofuel, some Numbers – from Grist
Biofuel Technologies – from Government of Oregon
Biofuel Production through Yeast Fermentation – Marietta University (PDF)
Biofuel & Bioenergy Bibliography – from USDA
Bio-diesel, a Primer – from ATTRA (PDF)
Biodiesel.org Reports Database
Biodiesel Resources from Vineyard Conservation Almanac
Biodiesel Articles from DOE/EERE (MS Word Document Format)
B100 Fuel.com
Biodiesel – A Fuel for the Future

Cars May Get Their Hydrogen from Waste Water Plants
Clean Vehicles & Biodiesel – from Union of Concerned Scientists New
Coconut as Biofuel in Philippines – Iran Daily
Comparison of Transport Fuels – from Australian Greenhouse Office
Costs of Bio-fuels Compared with Conventional Fuels
Cheaper Veggie Diesel May Change the Way we Drive – National Geographic
Could We Totally Substitute Oil by Biofuels? – Manicore.com
Comparison of Acute Toxicity of Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends & Diesel on Aquatic Organisms (PDF)

Diesel-like Fuel Obtained by Pyrolysis of Vegetable Oils – Government of Brazil (PDF)

EIA Energy Kids Page – Biodiesel a Biofuel New
European Biomass Industry Association
Evaluating Physical, Chemical, and Energetic Properties of Perennial Grasses as Biofuels
Evaluation of Process Variables Interaction by Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil Ethanolise
Engine Oil Analysis of Diesel Engines Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends (PDF)

Fuel from Vegetable Oils, from Veggie Power, UK
Frybrid Vegetable Oil Conversion Glossary New
Future Fuels

Green Power Conferences New
Governors’ Ethanol Coalition, America
Gujarat Oleochem Bags 25 Cr Biodiesel Order from IOC
Green Fuel Challenge

Historical Perspectives on Vegetable Oil Based Diesel Fuels (PDF)
How to Make Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil – a DIY for Making Bio-diesel
Horticultural Oil Info from OISAT
How to Make Biodiesel from Rapeseed Oil New
Hemp & The New Energy Technologies New
Hybrid Bio-diesel Car
History of the Diesel Engine from YBiofuels.com

India’s Unique Sources of Fuel for Electricity & Transportation (PDF)
Innovations to Overcome Shortcomings of Biodiesel

Jatropha News
Jatropha Oil – A Promising, Clean Alternative Energy

Kitchen Recipe for Car Fuel

Liquid Biofuels Newsletter from BLT, Austria
Links to Renewable Fuels Resources – Green Fuels
Liquid Biofuels – from Ademe.fr (PDF)

Making your Own Fuel – from JR Whipple
Malaysia’s National Bio-fuel Policy

National Bio-diesel Board
National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition - USA
Making your Own Fuel – from JR Whipple
National Biofuels Program - Related Links Alternative Fuels Data Center

Oil Production Information from FAO
Optimisation of Biodiesel Production from Castor Oil – a Poster Presentation

Production & Testing of Ethyl & Methyl Esters for Bio-fuel
Pre-treatment of Oils & Fats for Bio-diesel Production – from Westfalia Separator (PDF)
Production of Biodiesel from Rape-Seed Oil – SCEJ, Japan New
Plant Based Chemicals from Carbohydrate Economy New
Production of Biodiesel from Rape-Seed Oil – SCEJ, Japan New
Palm Oil Biodiesel
Pure Plant Oils – Clean Engine Fuels Today & Tomorrow

Rape Seed Oil for Transport - Agriculture and Energy New
Rape Seed Oil as Fuel - Study on Burning Properties New
Recommendations for Biofuels for Transportation – Renewable Energy Action, Netherlands (PDF)

Student’s Guide to Alternative Fuel Vehicles, from Energy Quest, Canada
Substituting Bio-fuels & Biomaterials
Successes with Bio-energy – the Brazilian Experience (PDF)
Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production (PDF)

The Methanol Institute
The European Bio-diesel Board New
Tapping Plant Power

UFOP, Germany – Fuel Oil Bearing Plants
University of Idaho Biodiesel Homepage
USDA Biofuels Information

Veggie Car Takes a Spin
Veggie Power
Vegetable Oil Fuel – from Alberta Government, Canada
Vegetable Oil – the New Fuel? – from National Geographic New
Vegetable Oils - from Wikipedia
Vegetable Oil Revival – from Chelsea Green (PDF)
Vegetable Oil Yields, Characteristics – from Journey to Forever

William Nelson’s Bio-diesel - Technology
Waste Vegetable Oil as a Fuel New
What is Biodiesel & What is Not – from Iowa State University
What is Biodiesel & What is Not?

Yahoo Group for Biofuels

Section 19. Biodiesel Data & Stats

Typical Extractions of Oil from Oilseeds

(Kg of oil from 100 Kg of oilseed)

Oilseed Extraction

Castor 36
Palm 36

Rapeseed 37

Soybean 14

Sunflower 32

Some Gasoline/Petrol & Diesel Facts:

Sulfur Content: 0.05 percent maximum allowed for diesel

Density : 7.076 lb/gal (diesel) 6.15 lb/gal (gasoline)

Heating Values

Diesel: 19300 Btu/lb (136,567 Btu/gal)

Gasoline: 20300 Btu/lb (124,845 Btu/gal)

Approximately 45-47 GJ/T

American standard testing methods (ASTM) tests and limits for Diesel fuels

Test ASTM Test No. ASTM limits for no. 2 Diesel fuel

Carbon residue (wt.%) D 524 0.35 % max.

Cetane no. D 613 40 min.

Distillation range (K) D 86 555–611

Flash point (K) D 93 325 min.

Higher heating value (MJ kg_1) D 2015 45.2 min.

Viscosity (mm2 s_1) D 445 1.9–4.1

Kinematic Viscosity Specs & Standards

Specifications: (viscosities in mm2/s)

Europe Petrodiesel: 2.0–4.5

Europe Biodiesel : 3.5–5.0

US specification of viscosity for low-sulfur No.2 diesel fuel: 1.9-4.1 mm2/s (this is the fuel that is biodiesel is most often compared to)

US Specification for No. 1 diesel fuel is 1.3–2.4 mm2/s.

Most alkyl esters of vegetable oils have kinematic viscosities less than 5.0 mm2/s.

Section 20. Biofuel Reference

Classes of Biofuels

Solid Biofuels

There are many forms of solid biomass that are combustible as a fuel such as:

· Wood

· Straw and other dried plants

· Animal waste such as poultry droppings or cattle dung

· Crops such as maize, rice, soybean, peanut and cotton (usually just the husks or shells) & sugarcane- or agave-derived bagasse.

Liquid Biofuels

There are also a number of liquid forms of biomass that can be used as a fuel:

· Bioalcohols

· Ethanol – usually produced from sugarcane, also from corn

· Methanol, which is currently produced from natural gas, can also be produced from biomass. The methanol economy is an interesting alternative to the hydrogen economy

· Butanol, formed by A.B.E. fermentation (Acetone, Butanol Ethanol) and experimental modifications of the ABE process show potentially high net energy gains. Butanol can be burned "straight" in existing gasoline engines (without modification to the engine or car), produces more energy and is less corrosive and less water soluble than ethanol, and can be distributed via existing infrastructures.

· Biologically produced oils (bio-oils) can be used in diesel engines

· Straight vegetable oil (SVO)

· Waste vegetable oil (WVO)

· Biodiesel obtained from transesterification of animal fats and vegetable oil, directly usable in petroleum diesel engines

· Oils produced from various wastes

· Thermal depolymerization from waste materials can extract methane and oil similar to petroleum

· Methane and oils are being extracted from landfill wells and leachate in test sites

Gaseous Biofuels

· Bio-methane produced by the natural decay of garbage or agricultural manure can be collected for use as fuel

  • It is also possible to estimate the number of animals needed for desirable size of biogas driven engine with Biogas Calculator

· Wood gas can be extracted from wood and used in petrol engines.

· Hydrogen can be produced in water electrolysis or, less ecologically, by cracking any hydrocarbon fuel in a reformer, some fermentation processes also produce hydrogen, such as A.B.E. fermentation

· Gasification, that produces carbon monoxide.

Energy Content of Biofuels

The specific energy densities ( in MJ/kg) of various fuels

Solid Fuels

· Wood Fuel – 16-21

Liquid Fuels

· Methanol – 20-23

· Ethanol – 24-27

· Butanol - 36

· Biodiesel - 38

Gaseous Fuels

· Methane – 55-56

· Hydrogen – 120-140

Fossil Fuels (for comparison)

· Coal – 29-34

Section 21. Fossil Fuel Energy – Limitations & Crises