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Castor Oil C-3 Derivatives



Glycerine (Glycerol) is a key product of transesterification reaction in castor oil with properties of high viscosity and transparency. It can be produced from synthetic as well as biological sources with castor oil as a potential source. On processing an unit tone of vegetable oil, a mass of one quintal glycerol is generated.


CAS Number


Molecular Formula


Molecular Weight


Physical State





Faint odour

Vapour Pressure

.0025 mm Hg @ 5

Vapour Density

3.17 (H2O=1)

Boiling Point


Freezing/Melting Point


Autoignition Temperature

400oC ( 752.00 deg F)

Flash Point

193oC ( 379.40 deg F)

Decomposition Temperature



Miscible in water. Insoluble in chloroform

Specific Gravity/Density




Glycerine is used in cosmetics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and a variety of personal care and oral care products, as well as in other applications including animal seed, antifreeze and certain energy uses.

Uses of glycerine by industry

v  Food and beverages - Humectant, solvent, sweetener, and preservative.

v  Pharmaceuticals - Solvent, moistener, humectant, and bodying agent in tinctures, elixirs, ointments, and syrups; plasticizer for medicine capsules; other uses include suppositories, ear infection remedies, anesthetics, cough remedies, lozenges, gargles, and carrier for antibiotics and antiseptics.

v  Cosmetics and toiletries - Humectant, vehicle, and emollient in toothpaste, skin creams and lotions, shaving preparations, deodorants, and makeup.

v  Tobacco - Keeps tobacco moist and soft to prevent breaking and crumbling during processing; ensures freshness in packaged cigarettes and other tobacco products.

v  Surface coatings - Used in the manufacture of alkyd resins, which are important components of surface coatings.

v  Paper and printing - Plasticizer, humectant, and lubricant in the manufacture of paper; used with other ingredients in specialty treatments such as grease-proofing; alkyd resins also an important constituent of many printing inks.

v  Lubricants - Because of its nontoxic character, used in lubricants for food and other machinery where product purity is essential.

v  Textiles - Conditioning agent used widely in lubricating, sizing, and softening yarn and fabric; lubricates many kinds of fibers in spinning, twist setting, knitting, and weaving operations.

v  Rubber and plastics - Lubricant and plasticizer for plastic.

v  Urethane polymers - Fundamental chemical component of polyethers for urethane foams.

v  Electrical and electronics - Widely employed in manufacturing electrolytes for electrolytic condensers, which are used in radios and neon lights, and in processes for electrodeposition and treatment of metals.

v  Nitration - Used to make nitroglycerine, which is the usual explosive in dynamite and a cardiovascular agent.