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Non-oil Plant Derivatives - WWW Resources

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Non-oil Plant Derivatives

Gums, Gels & Polymers

Some of the prominent gums, gels & polymers are:

· Guar (Guar Gum)

· Guar Gum Info from London South Bank University

· Guar Gum Info from Science Toys

· Alginates

· Alginates Info from Wound Care Information Network

· Alginates Info from Texturant-Systems

· Carrageenan

· Carrageenan Info from Mitsibushi

· Lecithin

· Lecithin Info from Texturant-Systems

· Lecithin Info from Wikipedia

· Facts about Soy Lecithin – from Talk Soy (PDF)

· Pectin

· Pectin Info from Texas A & M University

· Gum Arabic

· Gum Arabic Info from Saudi Aramco World

· Gum Arabic Info from Oregon State University

· Locust Bean Gum

· Locust Bean Gum from Wikipedia

· Locust Bean Gum Info from Science Toys

· Agar

· Agar Info from NIC, India

· Agar Production Methods – from FAO

Botanical Extracts

Some of the prominent botanical extracts are from:

Plant Acids

Plant acids are most often carboxylic acids. There are four main groups of plant acids to consider:

  • Monobasic (monocarboxylic) acids: straight-chain (aliphatic) acids containing up to 26 carbons per molecule. They include formic and acetic acids, and the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (Monobasic Definition from Die.net)
  • Polybasic acids: containing more than one carboxyl (-COO H) group; very widely found in plant material. They include oxalic, succinic and fumaric acids. (Polybasic Definition from Webster Dictionary)
  • Hydroxy acids: these include both a pair of carboxyl groups and one hydroxyl (-OH) group, giving them the properties of alcohols (q.v.) as well as acids. They include citric, malic and tartaric acids. (Hydroxy Definition from Biology Online)
  • Aromatic acids: these are cyclic acids mostly based on benzoic and cinnamic acids. Derivatives of benzoic acid include salicylic acid and the phenols, and the tannins

· Plant Acids – from Herbs 2000

· Unsaturated Fatty Acids – Important Component of Plant Oils – University of Regensburg, Germany

· Manufacture of Dimer Acids from Castor Oil – IICT, India

· Plants with Fatty Acids – from University of Illinois

· Polyenoic Fatty Acids – from Cyberlipid

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

These are universally found in plants, more so than in animal tissues. The most notable are linoleic and arachidonic acids found mostly in seeds and other reproductive tissues of the plant, and linolenic acid found especially in growing green tissues.

A notable application of this material in recent times has been the use of one PUFA, normally produced by the body from arachidonic acid, di-homo-y-linolenic acid (GLA), a major component of the oil of the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis spp.), which is used in the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases.

· Distribution of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the Triglycerides of Plants – Research Paper

· Fatty Acids, You & Your Pets – from Pet Center

· The Skinny on Trans Fatty Acids - from Chemical & Engineering News

· Fat & Fatty Acids, American Heart Association – from Delicious Decisions

· Lipids Info form Chemistry Department of Purdue University

Formic acid

Of interest mainly for its historical use as one of a number of agents employed as local irritants for treating chronic joint inflammations.

· Formic Acid Info from Wikipedia

· Formic Acid Info from University of Bristol

Acetic acid

The main principle in vinegar, it is rarely encountered in any quantity in the fresh plant. However, in traditional medicine vinegar preparations of medicinal herbs were common, allowing liquid remedies to be preserved for long periods.

Oxalic acid

This forms notably insoluble salts with such metals as calcium and in this form is found in the dock and rhubarb families (Rumex and Rheum spp.) especially, but also in many common foods (tea, spinach, beet and parsley) and in small quantities in many other plants.

· Oxalic Acid & Oxalates Info from Cloudnet

· The Metabolism of Oxalic Acid – from Russian Tortoise (PDF Document)

Succinic acid

An intermediary in basic metabolic processes in the body, it acts as a stimulant to tissue oxidation, and has been used allopathically with salicylates for arthritis and as a counter to barbiturate poisoning.

· Production of Succinic Acid from Wood Waste & Plants – Dept of Energy, Government of USA (PDF Document)

· Succinic Acid Info from Care Cure Herbs

Tartaric acid

A fruit acid found notably in tamarinds but widely throughout the plant world as well.

· Tartaric Acid – from Wikipedia

Citric acid

This is found widely in fruit and berries, especially the citrus fruits. It plays a key role in metabolism, with succinic and related acids

· Citric Acid Info from APAC Chemical Corporation

· Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi – Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PDF)

Benzoic acid

It is the central component of gum benzoin, found in high levels in Tolu and Peru balsams and also in cranberries. It is a local antiseptic in quite low concentrations; in higher dosages it becomes a local irritant. The local actions of benzoic acid and the benzoates are often utilized in the form of inhalants and throat remedies, and in such preparations as Friar's Balsam it is found to clear upper respiratory catarrh and to have antiseptic, soothing and astringent properties.

· Benzoic Acid Info from Wikipedia

· Benzoic Acid Info from Chemical Land 21

Plant Dyes

A great source for natural dyes can be found right in your own back yard. Roots, nuts and flowers are just a few common natural ways to get many colors.

Vegetable Waxes

Examples of Vegetable Waxes

  • Bayberry wax - from the surface of the berries of the bayberry shrub
  • Candelilla wax - from Mexican shrubs Euphorbia cerifera and E. antisyphilitica
  • Carnauba wax - the "queen of waxes" from leaves of Carnauba Palm
  • Castor wax - catalytically hydrogenated castor oil
  • Esparto wax - a byproduct of making paper from esparto grass
  • Japan wax - a vegetable tallow (not a true wax), from the berries of Rhus and Toxicodendron species
  • Jojoba oil - pressed from seeds of the jojoba tree, a replacement for spermaceti
  • Ouricury wax - from the Brazilian Feather Palm
  • Rice bran wax - obtained from rice bran

Plant Enzymes

Examples of Plant Enzymes

· Actinidin – Obtained from Kiwi fruit – Used in Food (Actinidin Info from Wikipedia)

· a-Amylase – Obtained from Malted barley – Used in Brewing (Research paper: Polymorphism of a-Amylase Genes in Barley)

· b-Amylase – Obtained from Malted barley – Used in Brewing (Enzymatic Assay of b-Amylase – from Sigma Aldrich – PDF document)

· Bromelain – Obtained from Pineapple latex – Used in Brewing (Bromelain Info from Vitacost, Bromelain Literature Review & Discussion – from Thorne.com, Bromelain Info from All Nutritionals)

· b-Glucanase – Obtained from Malted barley – Used in Brewing (Research paper: Bio-efficacy of Enzyme Preparations Containing b-Glucanase – PDF document)

· Ficin – Obtained from Fig latex – Used in Food (Research paper: Immobilized Ficin – from Pierce Technology – PDF Document)

· Lipoxygenase – Obtained from Soybeans – Used in Food (Lipoxygenase Structure from Scripps Research, Soybean Lipoxygenase Info – from Haverford College, Lipoxygenase – from Wikipedia)

· Papain – Obtained from Pawpaw latex – Used in Meat (Papain Production Info – from ITDG.org – PDF Document)