Non-oil Plant Derivatives - WWW Resources
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Non-oil Plant Derivatives
Gums, Gels & Polymers
- Hydrogels, Latexes & Resins from Texas A & M University
- Nitrogen Fixing Tree Gums from Winrock
- Catalog of Medicinal Plants Gums & Resins, from Exotic Natural
- Co-operative Research Centre for Industrial Plant Bio-polymers University of Melbourne
- Plant Fibers from Waynes Word
Some of the prominent gums, gels & polymers are:
· Guar (Guar Gum)
· Gum Arabic
· Locust Bean Gum
- Herbal & Botanical Extracts for Cosmetics & Toiletries Jarvis Botanical Extracts
- Herbal Extracts Info from Kellys Herb
- About Herbal Extracts from Alternative Medicines
- Make Your Own Liquid Herbal Tincture from Healthy New Age
Some of the prominent botanical extracts are from:
- Aloe Vera
- Notes on Aloe Vera from Quack Watch
- Aloe Vera & Digestion, Irritable Bowel & Arthritis
- International Aloe Science Council
- Guide to Growing Aloe Plants from the Garden Helper
- Introduction to the Ginkgoales - Univ of California, Berkeley
- Ginkgo Info from ITM Online
- Ginkgo Information from Bellevue Community College
- St. Johns Wort
Plant acids are most often carboxylic acids. There are four main groups of plant acids to consider:
- Monobasic (monocarboxylic) acids: straight-chain (aliphatic) acids containing up to 26 carbons per molecule. They include formic and acetic acids, and the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (Monobasic Definition from Die.net)
- Polybasic acids: containing more than one carboxyl (-COO H) group; very widely found in plant material. They include oxalic, succinic and fumaric acids. (Polybasic Definition from Webster Dictionary)
- Hydroxy acids: these include both a pair of carboxyl groups and one hydroxyl (-OH) group, giving them the properties of alcohols (q.v.) as well as acids. They include citric, malic and tartaric acids. (Hydroxy Definition from Biology Online)
- Aromatic acids: these are cyclic acids mostly based on benzoic and cinnamic acids. Derivatives of benzoic acid include salicylic acid and the phenols, and the tannins
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
These are universally found in plants, more so than in animal tissues. The most notable are linoleic and arachidonic acids found mostly in seeds and other reproductive tissues of the plant, and linolenic acid found especially in growing green tissues.
A notable application of this material in recent times has been the use of one PUFA, normally produced by the body from arachidonic acid, di-homo-y-linolenic acid (GLA), a major component of the oil of the evening primrose (Oenothera biennis spp.), which is used in the treatment of a range of inflammatory diseases.
· Distribution of Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the Triglycerides of Plants Research Paper
Of interest mainly for its historical use as one of a number of agents employed as local irritants for treating chronic joint inflammations.
The main principle in vinegar, it is rarely encountered in any quantity in the fresh plant. However, in traditional medicine vinegar preparations of medicinal herbs were common, allowing liquid remedies to be preserved for long periods.
This forms notably insoluble salts with such metals as calcium and in this form is found in the dock and rhubarb families (Rumex and Rheum spp.) especially, but also in many common foods (tea, spinach, beet and parsley) and in small quantities in many other plants.
· The Metabolism of Oxalic Acid from Russian Tortoise (PDF Document)
An intermediary in basic metabolic processes in the body, it acts as a stimulant to tissue oxidation, and has been used allopathically with salicylates for arthritis and as a counter to barbiturate poisoning.
A fruit acid found notably in tamarinds but widely throughout the plant world as well.
This is found widely in fruit and berries, especially the citrus fruits. It plays a key role in metabolism, with succinic and related acids
It is the central component of gum benzoin, found in high levels in Tolu and Peru balsams and also in cranberries. It is a local antiseptic in quite low concentrations; in higher dosages it becomes a local irritant. The local actions of benzoic acid and the benzoates are often utilized in the form of inhalants and throat remedies, and in such preparations as Friar's Balsam it is found to clear upper respiratory catarrh and to have antiseptic, soothing and astringent properties.
A great source for natural dyes can be found right in your own back yard. Roots, nuts and flowers are just a few common natural ways to get many colors.
- Making Natural Dyes from Plants Pioneer Thinking
- Research in Natural Dyes Model Plants, from Agraria di Pisa, Italy
- Early Use of Natural Dyes in Textiles Quilt History
- Natural Dye Plants & Wild Flowers from All Fiber Arts
Examples of Vegetable Waxes
- Bayberry wax - from the surface of the berries of the bayberry shrub
- Candelilla wax - from Mexican shrubs Euphorbia cerifera and E. antisyphilitica
- Carnauba wax - the "queen of waxes" from leaves of Carnauba Palm
- Castor wax - catalytically hydrogenated castor oil
- Esparto wax - a byproduct of making paper from esparto grass
- Japan wax - a vegetable tallow (not a true wax), from the berries of Rhus and Toxicodendron species
- Jojoba oil - pressed from seeds of the jojoba tree, a replacement for spermaceti
- Ouricury wax - from the Brazilian Feather Palm
- Rice bran wax - obtained from rice bran
- Enzymes & Digestion from Enzyme Stuff
- The Condensed Enzyme Fact Reference from Soma Care
- Enzymes Plant & Fungal, from Omri.org (PDF)
- Sources of Enzymes from London South Bank University
Examples of Plant Enzymes
· Actinidin Obtained from Kiwi fruit Used in Food (Actinidin Info from Wikipedia)
· a-Amylase Obtained from Malted barley Used in Brewing (Research paper: Polymorphism of a-Amylase Genes in Barley)
· b-Amylase Obtained from Malted barley Used in Brewing (Enzymatic Assay of b-Amylase from Sigma Aldrich PDF document)
· Bromelain Obtained from Pineapple latex Used in Brewing (Bromelain Info from Vitacost, Bromelain Literature Review & Discussion from Thorne.com, Bromelain Info from All Nutritionals)
· b-Glucanase Obtained from Malted barley Used in Brewing (Research paper: Bio-efficacy of Enzyme Preparations Containing b-Glucanase PDF document)
· Ficin Obtained from Fig latex Used in Food (Research paper: Immobilized Ficin from Pierce Technology PDF Document)
· Lipoxygenase Obtained from Soybeans Used in Food (Lipoxygenase Structure from Scripps Research, Soybean Lipoxygenase Info from Haverford College, Lipoxygenase from Wikipedia)
· Papain Obtained from Pawpaw latex Used in Meat (Papain Production Info from ITDG.org PDF Document)